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For Model m BASIC 
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ZORK™ 

The Great Underground Empire 



Program and Manual by 
Infocom, Inc. 



Radio /hack* 



II A DIVISION OF TANDY CORPORATION 
FORT WORTH, TEXAS 76102 



ZORK™ The Great Underground Empire Manual: 

© 1982 Infocom, Inc. 

Licensed to Tandy Corporation 

All Rights Reserved, 

ZORK™ The Great Underground Empire Program: 

® 1980 Infocom, Inc. 

Licensed to Tandy Corporation 

All Rights Reserved. 

TRS-80® is a trademark of Tandy Corporation 
Radio Shack® is a trademark of Tandy Corporation 

ZORK™ is a trademark of Infocom, Inc. 

Reproduction or use, without express written permission from 
Tandy Corporation, of any portion of this manual is 
prohibited. While reasonable efforts have been taken in the 
preparation of this manual to assure its accuracy, Tandy 
Corporation assumes no liability resulting from any errors or 
omissions in this manual, or from the use of the information 
obtained herein. 

Please refer to the Software License on the back cover of this 
manual for limitations on use and reproduction of this 
Software package. 

10 987654321 



Table of Contents 

Introduction 1 

What You Need 1 

About Your ZORK Diskette 2 

Backing Up ZORK 2 

Model I ZORK 2 

Model III ZORK-Single-Drive 3 

Model III ZORK-Multi-Drive 5 

Loading ZORK 6 

Model I ZORK 7 

Model III ZORK 8 

Rules and Strategies 10 

The Great Underground Empire 10 

Concepts for Exploring 10 

Talking to ZORK 11 

ZORK's Pedagogy 12 

Commands for Exploring 13 

List of ZORK Commands 14 

How to Quit 15 

Restarting a Game 15 

Saving a Game Position 16 

Model 1 17 

ModelHI 18 

Restoring a Game Position 18 

Model 1 18 

Model III 18 

Appendix A: Troubleshooting 21 

AppendixB: Command Summary 22 

Sentence Syntax 23 

Appendix C: Tips for Multi-Drive Users 24 

Model 1 24 

Saving a Game Position 24 

Restoring a Game Position 25 

Model III 26 

Saving a Game Position 26 

Restoring a Game Position 27 

Appendix D: How to FORMAT a Storage Diskette 28 

Appendix E: How to BACKUP a TRSDOS Diskette 29 



Introduction 



Introduction 

It may be an ordinary day or night in familiar surroundings, but sit down with 
32K bytes of RAM in your TRS-80 and pop in a ZORK diskette. You are plunged 
into an exciting fantasy world where your survival depends only on your wits 
and courage. Mystery, monsters, and magic test your skill in an alternate 
universe of danger and opportunity. You may never want to leave! 

ZORK turns your TRS-80 computer into a dynamic fantasy game in which you 
participate. You direct the action, you discover the secrets, you fight the battles, 
you solve the mysteries, and you claim the treasure. You directly experience the 
story as it unfolds, as it involves you and your computer in vividly described, 
compelling, fantastic situations. 

IMPORTANT NOTICE: Before using ZORK, make a BACKUP copy. Follow the 
instructions on page 2 for Backing Up ZORK. 



What You Need 

The ZORK diskette contains the complete game. To play ZORK, you need the 
following: 

Model I: 

• TRS-80 16K Level II keyboard. 

• TRS-80 16K Expansion Interface. 

• TRS-80 Video Monitor. 

• One TRS-80 Disk Drive. 

• A formatted diskette for backing up ZORK. (See detailed information on 
page 28.) 

• A formatted storage diskette, if you want to stop playing and continue later 
from where you left off. Prepare this diskette before you start playing ZORK. 
(See detailed information in Appendix D.) This item is optional. 

• A TRS-80 Line Printer capable of printing 80 columns per line, and a Printer 
Cable. These items are optional. 

Model III: 

• TRS-80 32K Model HI. 

• One TRS-80 Disk Drive. 



What You Need 



• A diskette for backing up ZORK. (See detailed information on page 29.) 

• A storage diskette, initialized with the TRSDOS BACKUP command (see 
Appendix E for detailed instructions), if you want to save a game position. 

• A TRS-80 Line Printer capable of printing 80 columns per line and a Printer 
Cable. These items are optional. 



About Your ZORK Diskette 

Although this manual describes both the TRS-80 Model I and Model III versions 
of ZORK, only one ZORK diskette was included in your program package. 
Follow only the manual's instructions which apply to your computer and disk 
system. 

This game is BACKUP LIMITED to allow making only one copy of the game in 
addition to the original program diskette included in this package. Once the 
BACKUP process is complete, you cannot make another copy. It is important 
that you use this BACKUP copy of the program diskette when possible. Store 
the original diskette in its protective sleeve and put it in a safe place. 

If you have made your copy of the ZORK diskette, and try to make an addi- 
tional copy, the program will indicate that it cannot be done. 

Model I will display the message: 

INSTALL WRITE PROTECT TAB 
TYPE ANY KEY TO CONTINUE. 

Model III will display: 

Maximum Backup Count Exceeded 
Protected Files NOT Backed Up 
TRSDOS Ready 



Backing Up ZORK 

You should read these instructions for backing up your program diskette care- 
fully before you actually perform any of the steps. 



Model I ZORK 

You can use only one drive (Drive ft) to perform the following backup procedure 
no matter how many drives you have in your system. 



Backing Up ZORK 



1) Follow the instructions in Appendix D to FORMAT a blank diskette. 

2) Remove the write-protect tab from the ZORK program diskette and put the 
diskette in Drive j3. 

3) Press and continue to hold any key on the keyboard. At the same time, press 
and release the | RESET | button to begin the game. The program responds: 

SELF COPY PROGRAM 

TYPE ANY KEY TO CONTINUE 

4) Release the key you've been holding. Press any key to begin the backup 
process. 

5) When ready, the program prompts you to insert the backup (storage) destina- 
tion diskette. Remove the program diskette from Drive and replace it with 
the destination diskette. 

6) Type any key to continue the process. When ready, the program prompts you 
to re-insert the program (master) diskette. Since the program reads 1/4 of the 
diskette at a time, you will have to repeat steps 5 and 6 three times. 

7) When finished, the program prompts you to replace the write-protect tab. 
Label the Backup copy, and put a write-protect tab on both the original 
ZORK program diskette and the Backup copy. You should store the original 
diskette in a safe place. 

If there are any problems during the Backup process, the program prompts you. 
You should re-format your destination diskette and try the process again. 



Model III ZORK - Single-Drive 

Use this procedure EXACTLY: 
Note: You must have a destination disk ready upon which to Backup ZORK. 

1) Turn on your system. If this is the first time you've ever used the Radio 
Shack Disk System, refer to the Disk System Owner's Manual for detailed 
instructions. 

2) Insert the original program diskette to be Backed Up in Drive p. The 
diskette MUST NOT have a write protect tab on the notch at this time. 
Insert the diskette with the label up. The small square notch in the diskette 
will be to your left. Close the drive door firmly. 



Backing Up ZORK 



3) In order to make a BACKUP of the program diskette you must do the 
following: 



Press the | RESET ] button. 

The screen will show: 

Enter Date (MM/DD/YY)? 



You type: 



Type today's date and press | ENTER 
(January 9, 1982 = 

Emms]® mas) 



Enter Time (HH:MM:SS)? 
TRSDOS Ready. 



Press ENTER 



Bil iiB DBiDB 

and press | ENTER | . 



SOURCE Disk Master Password? 



Insert DESTINATION Diskette 



PASS 



R D 



and press 1 ENTER | . 



Swap your disks, and close the drive 
door first. Now press | ENTER | . 



Note: If you are using a new disk, the system will format the disk for you. If you 
are re-using an old disk, one or two additional questions may appear, depending 
on the contents of the disk. You may see: 

Diskette contains DATA. Use Disk or not? 

or: 

Do you wish to RE-FORMAT the diskette? 

Be sure you do not need to use the data on that disk again. If the questions 
appear, type [y) and press | ENTER | for each question. 

From this point, the screen will indicate which diskette to insert. Be sure to wait 
until the drive has stopped running before swapping diskettes. 

After this process has been completed, the screen will show: 

* * Backup Complete* * 



Backing Up ZORK 



When finished, put a write-protect tab on both the original ZORK program 
diskette and the Backup copy. Label the Backup copy and store the original 
diskette in a safe place. Now follow the loading instructions using the Backup 
copy of the Program diskette you just created. 



Model III ZORK - Multi-Drive 

Use this procedure EXACTLY: 

Note: You must have a destination disk ready on which to Backup ZORK. 

1) Turn on your system. If this is the first time you've ever used the Radio 
Shack Disk System, refer to the Disk System Owner's Manual for detailed 
instructions. 

2) Insert the original program diskette to be Backed Up in Drive p. The 
diskette MUST NOT have a write protect tab on the notch at this time. 
Insert the diskette with the label up. The square notch in the diskette will be 
to your left. Close the drive door firmly. 

3) In order to make a BACKUP copy of the program diskette, do the following: 



Press the | RESET | button. 

4) Insert the destination diskette in Drive 1 and close the drive door firmly 
The screen will show: You type: 

Enter Date (MM/DD/YY)? 



Type today's date and press ] ENTER 
(January 9, 1982 = 

n mm is mm sin) 



Enter Time (HH:MM:SS)? 



TRSDOS Ready. 



Press ENTER . 



®B@BiBDQIDQB 

and press | ENTER | . 



Backing Up ZORK 



SOURCE Disk Master Password? \P\ [AJ \s\ \§\ M \Q] W LDJ 

and press | ENTER | . 

Note: If you are using a new disk, the system will format the disk for you. If you are 
re-using an old disk, one or two additional questions may appear, depending on the 
previous contents of the disk. You may see: 

Diskette contains DATA. Use Disk or not? 



or: 

Do you wish to RE-FORMAT the diskette? 

Be sure you do not need to use the data on that disk again. If the questions 
appear, type (Y] and press | ENTER | for each question. When the process is 
done, the screen will show: 

* * Backup Complete* * 

When finished, put a write-protect tab on both the original ZORK program 
diskette and the Backup copy. Label the Backup copy and store the original in a 
safe place. Now follow the loading instructions using the Backup Copy of the 
Program diskette you just created. 



Loading ZORK 

It is assumed that you have read about the general operational procedures for 
your computer system in your Owner's Manual, and that you now know how to 
turn the power on, etc. 

ZORK allows you to save your game position any time during the game, in case 
you get lost or killed. To save a game position you must use a storage diskette 
that has been formatted before you begin playing ZORK. Appendix D contains 
detailed instructions on how to format a Model I storage diskette. Appendix E 
contains instructions for Model III diskettes. 



Loading ZORK 



Model I ZORK 



1) 



2) 



Check your ZORK diskette to insure that it has a write-protect tab on it. A 
write-protect tab protects you from accidentally overwriting your game. 

With your computer turned on, put the ZORK program diskette in your main 
disk drive (drive 0) with the Model I label facing to the right. The oval 
cutout goes in first. It should look like this: 



Write-Protect 
Tab 




Figure 1-1. Loading ZORK from Diskette on the Model I 



3) Close the drive door an d press t he | RESET | button on the TRS-80 (as you 
face the keyboard, the | RESET | button is recessed in a hole located behind 
the left hand side of the keyboard). Now wait for a few seconds. 

4) When you've correctly loaded ZORK from the diskette, the copyright notice 
and the serial number will appear, followed by a description of the starting 
location of the game. The output on your screen will appear in upper case, as 
will your input, unless your TRS-80 has the lowercase option, and you 
specify this option. 



Loading ZORK 



8 



Model III ZORK 

1) Check your ZORK diskette to insure that it has a write-protect tab on it. A 
write-protect tab prevents you from accidentally overwriting your game. 

2) Turn the power switch on. Put the program diskette in the main drive (drive 
0) with the label facing up. It should look like this: 



Write-Protect 
Tab 




Drive-0 



Figure 1-2. Loading ZORK from Diskette on the Model III 

3) Your TRS-80 will then prompt you for the date: 

Enter Date (MM/DD/YY)? 



4) Enter the current date in the proper format and press the | ENTER | key. 
Next, you will see a prompt for the time. Simply press the | ENTER | key 
because the clock display should be off when running ZORK. 

5) The next prompt you see will be a flashing cursor prompt, which follows the 
message TRSDOS Ready. Type in {1} \g\ \r\ \k\ , then press | ENTER | . 

6) When you've correctly loaded ZORK from the diskette, the copyright notice 
and the serial number will appear, followed by a description of the starting 
location of the game. 



Loading ZORK 



The initial ZORK screen display looks like this: 

ROOM: West of House SCORE: MOVES: 

West of House 

You are standing in an open field west of a white house, 

with a boarded front door. 

There is a small mailbox here. 

If nothing appears on your screen, something is wrong. Turn to Appendix A, 
"Troubleshooting," for help. 

Whenever you see the right arrow (> ), ZORK is waiting for you to type in your 
instructio ns. When you have finished typing in your instructions, press the 
("ENTER I key. ZORK will respond and then the right arrow ( > ) will reappear. 

Next to the ( > ) try typing the following: 

EBEl DBi lDlBfflBDliB 

and press the I ENTER | key. ZORK responds with this: 

Opening the mailbox reveals a leaflet. 

You may respond to ZORK by typing: 

and pressing the | ENTER | key. ZORK cooperates and tells you: 

(TAKEN) 
WELCOME TO ZORK 

ZORK is a game of adventure, danger, and low cunning. 

In it you will explore some of the most amazing territory 

ever seen by mortals. 

No TRS-80 should be without onel. 

NOTE: ^MORE^- will appear at the bottom of the screen when a description 
will not fit on the screen all at once. Once you have read the part on the screen, 
you may see the rest by pressing the space bar on your keyboard. 

When the right arrow prompt ( > ) reappears, you are left to your own devices. 
Read the "Rules and Strategies" section for further directions and hints. Good 
luck, bon voyage and hold onto your hat! 



Rules and Strategies 



10 



Rules and Strategies 

The Great Underground Empire 

In The Great Underground Empire you are near a great underground 
labyrinth, which is reputed to contain vast quantities of treasure. No doubt, 
you wish to acquire some of it. In order to receive full credit for treasure, you 
must deposit it safely in the trophy case. 

In addition to treasure, the labyrinth contains various objects that may or may 
not be useful in your attempt to acquire the treasure. You may need sources of 
light, since caves are often dark, and weapons, since dungeons often have 
unfriendly beings wandering about in them. Reading material is scattered 
around as well, and you might even find some of it useful. 

Beware of the thief! He is a dastardly anti-social type and a skilled 
pickpocket. Watch out for your valuable possessions when he is near. 

To measure your success, ZORK keeps track of your score. You receive points 
for finding treasure, for securing it in the trophy case, for performing certain 
actions, and for visiting certain places. There is a penalty for getting yourself 
killed. 

In this story, time passes only in response to your input. You might imagine a 
giant clock that ticks once per move and the story progresses only at each tick. 
Nothing happens in the story while you are thinking and planning your next 
move, so you can plan your moves slowly and carefully if you so choose. 

The line displayed at the top of your screen tells you the room you are in, your 
current score and how many moves it took you to achieve this: 

ROOM: SCORE: MOVES: 

Concepts for Exploring 

Some things that you can do with objects in this story are not immediately 
obvious. 

Containment: Some objects can contain other objects. Some containers can be 
opened or closed, and some are always open. Some are transparent, and some are 
not. Most containers have a limited capacity, and all objects have sizes, so that 
it is possible to fill up containers. Similarly, some objects have surfaces on which 
other objects can be placed. 

Fighting: Characters in the story will, as a rule, fight back when attacked. They 
may, in some cases, attack you unprovoked. Some of these beings are stronger 
than others; it might be advisable to wait a while before taking them on. 



Rules and Strategies 



Emerging second-best in a fight may leave you somewhat the worse for wear; 
you might want to ask ZORK to diagnose your condition (see Appendix B, 
"Command Summary"). 

Vehicles: There are objects in the story that have the ability to transport the 
fearless player to mysterious regions that are inaccessible on foot. Needless to 
say, one faces great personal peril in venturing into such regions. 

Directions: The passages connecting rooms in The Great Underground Empire 
sometimes twist and turn unpredictably. You cannot expect that after going 
north, you can always return to where you were by going south. 

Talking to ZORK 

When you play a ZORK game, you talk to ZORK in plain English, by typing in 
all your requests on your computer's keyboard when you see the prompt (>). 
(ZORK allows you to abbreviate some words because you use them often.) When 
you have finished typing a line, press the | ENTER] key and ZORK will consider 
your request. 

ZORK usually acts as though your sentence begins with "I want to ...", 
although you should not type these exact words. ZORK then displays a response 
that tells you whether what you want to do is possible in the current situation, 
and, if it is, whether anything interesting happens as a result. 

All words you type are distinguished by their first six letters and all subsequent 
letters are ignored. For example, typing Open the encyclopedia is equivalent to 
typing Open the encycl or better still, Open the book. ZORK doesn't care 
whether you type in capital letters or lower case letters, or a mixture. 

ZORK understands many different types of sentences. A sentence must contain 
a verb and usually an object. Some examples: 

Take the gold. Drop gold. Pick up gold. Put down the gold. Go north. North. 
Walk north. N. Push button. Push the red button. Open wooden door. Look at 
the wall. Look under rock. Look behind curtain. Look in bag. Read a book. Read 
all of the books. Drop all. Take all. Drop all but the knife. 

You must separate multiple objects of a verb by the word "and" or a comma (,). 

Take all but the knife and the lamp. Put the gold and jewels in the trophy case. 
Throw the newspaper, the red book, and the magazine in the chasm. 

You can include several sentences in one input line if you separate them by the 
word then or a period. You don't need to type a period at the end of an input 
line. For example: 



11 



Rules and Strategies 



12 



Take book. N. Drop book and candle. 

Take the book then N. Drop book and candle 

There are only two kinds of questions that ZORK understands: What and 
Where. For example: 

Where is the gold? What is a grue? 

ZORK tries to be clever about what you really mean when you don't give enough 
information. If you say that you want to do something, but you don't say what 
to do it with or to, ZORK will sometimes decide that there was only one possible 
object you could have meant. When it does decide, it will tell you, by displaying, 
for example, (with the rope). If your sentence is really ambiguous, ZORK will 
ask you what you really meant. ZORK may ask, for example, With what?; this 
can be answered briefly, by typing [T)|o] [p] [e~|. 

In a way, ZORK's vocabulary is lopsided, because ZORK uses many more words 
than it understands. ZORK's vocabulary consists of several hundred words, and 
includes nearly all the words that you are likely to use in conversing with ZORK. 
However, ZORK's responses may be quite elaborate at times, and ZORK will 
display English descriptions that it couldn't possibly analyze. Indeed, ZORK's 
response may refer to something to which you cannot refer (perhaps to your 
dismay). In that case, it is not essential to the story, and appears in ZORK's 
responses only to enhance your mental imagery. 

Completely mystifying sentences will cause ZORK to complain in one way or 
another, and, after making the complaint, ZORK will ignore the rest of the input 
line. Unusual events, such as being attacked, will also make ZORK ignore the 
rest of the sentences you typed, since the event may have changed your situation 
drastically. 

ZORK's Pedagogy 

ZORK may occasionally have a few words for you when it wants you to clarify 
an instruction you've given. Some of ZORK's remarks are: 

I don't know the word '(your word)'.— The word you typed is not in the game's 
vocabulary. Sometimes a synonym or rephrasing will be understood. If not, 
ZORK probably doesn't know the idea you were trying to get across. 

i can't use the word '(your word)' here.— ZORK knows the word you typed, 
but the word made no sense where you put it in the sentence: Open the take, for 
example. 

You must supply a verb!— Unless you are answering a question, each sentence 
must have a verb (or a command) in it somewhere. 



Rules and Strategies 



There is a noun missing in that sentence.— This usually indicates an incomplete 
sentence, such as Put the lamp in the , where ZORK expected another noun and 
couldn't find one. 

Too many noun clauses —An example is: Put the troll in the basket with the 
shovel. A legal sentence has, at most, one direct object and one indirect object. 

Beg pardon?— You did not type anything after the prompt (>) or before you 
pressed the 1 ENTER | key on your keyboard. 

It's too dark to see.— In the story, there was no light to see objects in the room. 

I cannot see any (object) here.— In the story, the object you referred to was not 
accessible to you. 

Multiple objects cannot be used with (your verb).— It is valid for you to use 
multiple objects (that is, nouns or noun phrases separated by "and" or a comma) 
only with certain verbs. Among the more useful of these verbs are take, drop, 
and put. 

I don't understand that sentence.— You typed a sentence that is gibberish to 
ZORK, for example, Give troll with sword. You might try rephrasing the 
sentence. 

Commands for Exploring 

The best way to move from place to place is to type the direction you want to 
go. Acceptable directions are North or N, South or S, East or E, West or W, NE 
for Northeast or NW, SE, SW (for Northwest, Southeast or Southwest respec- 
tively), U or Up, and D or Down. 

When you enter a particular place (ZORK calls any kind of a place a "room") for 
the first time, ZORK usually displays the name of the room, a description of it, 
and then descriptions of any interesting objects in the room with which you 
might want to interact. When you return to a room, ZORK normally displays 
just the name of the room and the names of the objects in it. The VERBOSE 
command tells ZORK to give the description of rooms and objects every time 
you go there, not just the first time. The BRIEF command tells ZORK to 
describe fully only newly encountered rooms and objects. For moving through 
areas you already know well, the SUPERBRIEF command tells ZORK to give 
only the name of a room (even on your first visit there), and not even to mention 
objects in the room. You can always get a description of the room you are in and 
the objects in it by typing [T] [o] \o\ \k\ (or the abbreviation jT]). 

Hint: Exploring The Great Underground Empire will be much easier if you make 
a map as you move around. 



13 





Rules and Strategies 




List of ZORK Commands 




To simplify your adventuring, you may order ZORK to give you information by 
typing specific commands. These commands can be used over and over again as 
needed, but they are each considered one complete move. 




The list of commands is: 




AGAIN 


ZORK will respond as if you had repeated your previous 
sentence. 




BRIEF 


This commands ZORK to fully describe only newly 
encountered rooms and objects. Rooms already visited and 
objects already seen will be described by printing the room 
name and the object names only. 




DIAGNOSE 


ZORK gives you a medical report of your physical condition. 
This is particularly useful if you have just survived a 
dangerous battle. 




INVENTORY 


ZORK lists your possessions. If you've noticed the thief 
lurking about, you might want to check to see if your 
belongings are still there. You may abbreviate 
INVENTORY by typing I. 




LOOK 


ZORK describes your surroundings in detail. You may 
abbreviate LOOK by typing L. 




QUIT 


This gives you the option to quit playing. If you want to 
save your position, first read the instructions under "Saving 
a Game Position." You may abbreviate QUIT by typing Q. 




RESTART 


This ends the game and starts the game over from the 
beginning. 




RESTORE 


This lets you pick up a game position from where you issued 
the last SAVE command. See the section on "Restoring a 
Game Position." 




SAVE 


This lets you save your position in a game so you can come 
back to it later. See the section on "Saving a Game 
Position." 




SCORE 


ZORK shows your current score with the number of moves 
you have made, and your rank. Your rank is your rating as a 
professional ZORK player and is based on the number of 
points you have and the number of moves you've made. 


14 







Rules and Strategies 



SCRIPT 
SUPERBRIEF 

UNSCRIPT 
VERBOSE 

VERSION 

WAIT 



This command assumes you have a printer. It commands the 
printer to begin printing a transcript of your game session. 

This command tells ZORK to show you only the name of the 
room you have entered, and no other information. It is 
briefer than BRIEF. 

Unscript stops your printer from printing. 

This command tells ZORK to show you a long description of 
the room and the objects in it whenever you enter a room. 

ZORK responds by showing you the version and serial 
number of your copy of the game. 

This causes time in the game to pass. Normally, between 
moves, no time is passing as far as ZORK is concerned. You 
could leave your TRS-80, take a nap, and return to the game 
to find that nothing has changed. WAIT is used when you 
want to find out what will happen in the game if you do 
nothing while time passes. For example, if you encounter an 
alien being, you could WAIT and see what it will do. 



How to Quit 



If you want to stop playing, and do not wish to continue this particular game 
later, type QUIT. ZORK will respond: 

(total of 350 points), in moves. 



Your score would be 

This score gives you the rank of . 

Do you wish to leave the game? (Y is affirmative) :> 

The right arrow prompt (>) will appear. Type \V} and press the I ENTER | key. 
(You may type [n] for NO if you change your mind and want to continue 
playing.) 

Restarting a Game 

If you want to start a new game, type DUSSIS] after the right 
arrow prompt (>). ZORK will respond by giving you the following message: 



in 



moves. 



Your score would be (total of 350 points) 

This score gives you the rank of . 

Do you wish to restart? (Y is affirmative) :> 

Type [V] after the right arrow prompt (> ) appears and press 1 ENTER | . (You 
may type Q2 for NO if you change your mind and want to continue in the same 



15 



Rules and Strategies 



16 



game.) ZORK will respond by giving you a Restarting message. Your screen will 
go blank for a moment, except for the top status line. Then the game will begin 
again. You will be West of House, with a score of and moves made. 

If you want to continue playing this particular game later, follow the instruc- 
tions under "Saving a Game Position." 

Saving a Game Position 

It will take you some time to play ZORK through to the end, just as it takes you 
some time to finish a good book. You will almost certainly not finish in one 
sitting. ZORK allows you to continue playing later without having to start over 
from the beginning, just as you can place a bookmark in a book you are reading. 
There is a ZORK command, called SAVE, that makes a "snapshot" of your posi- 
tion in the game. If you are a cautious or prudent player, you may want to save 
your position before you embark upon (or after you finish) any particularly tricky 
or dangerous part of the journey. Having taken a snapshot, you can go back to 
that position even though you may get lost or killed afterwards. 

Note: You must use the SCRIPT command carefully, especially when using the 
SAVE or RESTORE options. You must make sure your printer is ready to print 
(connected, on-line, enough paper, etc.) any time during the game the SCRIPT 
command is used. 

The following instructions for saving a game will require the storage diskette 
you prepared earlier. Before you attempt to save a game, you must make sure 
the program diskette is write-protected. If you have not prepared this storage 
diskette, see Appendix D (Model I) or Appendix E (Model III). 

You must be very careful when using the SAVE and RESTORE functions. Do 
not press 1 ENTER | until prompted. Specify the save number (Model I) or name 
(Model III) of the game, and the number of the drive you will use, with care. 
Once the SAVE and RESTORE process has started, it cannot be interrupted 
without loss of data. 

If the screen freezes, or the drives will not stop spinning after at least 90 
seconds, you can press the 1 RESET | button. This will take you to the beginning 
of the game (Model I) or to TRSDOS (Model III). You can then begin the game 
again. 

When the right arrow ( > ) appears, type: 

[USED 

then press the I ENTER ] key. 

The following instructions refer to single-drive systems. Multi-drive system users 
should refer to Appendix C, "Tips for Multi-Drive Users." 



Rules and Strategies 



Model I 

ZORK will respond: 

LOAD SAVE DISK, THEN TYPE DRIVE NUMBER (0-3, <ENTER> =0) 

1) Insert the formatted storage diskette and close the drive d oor. You cannot 
save games on the ZORK Model I program diskette. Press | ENTER | to 
indicate that you want to save the game on a storage diskette in drive p. A f 
will appear next to the SAVE prompt. 

2) ZORK will respond: 

ENTER SAVE NUMBER (0-4, <ENTER> -0) 

Unless you want to keep the option o f saving up to five game positions on 
your storage diskette, press I ENTER 1 to indicate that you want to assign 
save number ft. You can use the same save number to save a game from 
several different points; the newly save game position always erases the old 
one with the same save number. A ft should appear next to the save number 
prompt. 

3) ZORK will respond: 

LOAD DATA DISK, THEN TYPE <ENTER> 



4) Put the ZORK program diskette back in the drive and press | ENTER | . 

5) If all is well, ZORK will respond: 
OK 

If ZORK responds: 

FAILED 

turn to Appendix A, "Troubleshooting." 

6) You should see the right arrow prompt ( > ); you can now continue playing. 
Type |T] [oj \o} \k\ for a description of where you are. You may now use the 
storage diskette and the RESTORE procedure to return to this point at 
another time. 



17 



Rules and Strategies 



18 



Model III 

ZORK will respond: 

Load SAVE disk, then enter file name, <ENTER> for default, 

1) Remove the ZORK diskette from your disk drive. 

2) Insert the storage diskette and close the drive door. Do not save games on 
the ZORK Model III program diskette. 

3) If you want ZORK to assign the default filename to your saved game, press 
1 ENTER | . If you want to give the game a name of your own, type the name 
(correcting mistakes with the <- key) and then press | ENTER | . Do not use 
the default filename if you plan to save more than one game position on a 
diskette. Filenames can be up to eight characters long and may have up to a 
three-character extension. See your Model III Disk System Owner's 
Manual for more information. 

4) ZORK will respond: 

Load DATA disk, type <ENTER> to continue> 

Remove the storage diskette from the drive and insert the ZORK diskette 
again. Press the | ENTER | key. 

5) If all is well, ZORK will respond: 
Ok 

If ZORK responds: 

Failed 

you are either attempting to save a game position on a diskette that is 
already full or something else is wrong. If your storage diskette is not full, 
turn to Appendix A, "Troubleshooting." 

6) You should see the right arrow prompt ( > ); you can now continue playing. 
Type [E] \o\ \o} \k\ for a description of where you are. You may now use the 
storage diskette and the RESTORE procedure to return to this point at 
another time. 

Restoring a Game Position 

To pick up a game where you left off, use the RESTORE command. The follow- 
ing instructions are for single-drive users. If you have a multi-drive system, turn 
to Appendix C, "Tips for Multi-Drive Users." 



Rules and Strategies 



From anywhere in the game, type after the right arrow ( > ) prompt: 

m m rn m m m n 



then press 1 ENTER | . 
Model I 

1) ZORK will respond: 

LOAD SAVE DISK, THEN TYPE DRIVE NUMBER (0-3, <ENTER> = 0) 
Insert the formatted storage diskette and close the drive door. 

2) Type \g\. 

3) ZORK will respond: 

ENTER SAVE NUMBER (0-4, <ENTER> =p) 

Type the save number of the game position you wish to restore. If the game 
you wish to restore was saved with the default save number (i.e., you pressed 
1 ENTER | after the SAVE prompt was displayed), just press | ENTER | . 

4) ZORK will respond with this message: 

LOAD DATA DISK, THEN TYPE <ENTER> 



5) Put the ZORK program disk back in the drive and press ] ENTER | . 

6) If ZORK successfully loaded the game, it will display OK. If you see FAILED 
displayed, ZORK was unable to load the game. Check the save number you 
typed in. If you entered everything correctly, turn to Appendix A, 

' ' Troubleshooting. ' ' 

7) You're ready to resume the game where you left off. Type [Q fol fo] [k] to 
see where you are. Good luck! 

Model III 

1) ZORK will respond: 

Load SAVE disk then enter file name, <ENTER> for default 

2) Put the disk with the saved game position on it in the drive, and close the 
drive door. 



19 



Rules and Strategies 



20 



3) If the g ame you w ish to resume was saved with the default filename (i.e., you 
pressed I ENTER [ after the SAVE prompt was displayed), just press 1 ENTER] . 



4) If you gave the game a name, type the name and press I ENTER | . 

5) ZORK will respond with this message: 

Load DATA disk, type < ENTER > to continue 



6) Put the ZORK program disk back in the drive and press | ENTER | . 

7) If ZORK successfully loaded the game, it will display Ok. If you see Failed 
displayed, ZORK was unable to load the game. Check the game name you 
typed in. If you entered everything correctly, turn to Appendix A, 

' ' Troubleshooting. ' ' 

8) You're ready to resume the game where you left off. Type |T] HD [o] \k\ to 
see where you are. Good luck! 



Appendix A: Troubleshooting 



Appendix A: Troubleshooting 

If the game does not appear to be functioning properly, check for the 
following: 

1) Check to see that the power is on and that all drives and cables are 
connected properly. 

2) Inspect the diskette carefully for any visible signs of damage. 

3) If you have more than one disk drive, be sure you have used drive <j) (or the 
first drive on the connecting cable) for the ZORK diskette. 

4) Check that the diskette is properly inserted in the drive and that the drive 
door is closed. 

5) Try again, the problem may be only momentary. 

When ZORK responds Failed to either the SAVE or RESTORE procedures, 
check each of the following items to locate the problem. 

1) Inspect the diskette(s) carefully for any visible signs of damage. 

2) Be sure that your storage diskette is not write-protected (i.e., there is 
nothing covering the notch on the side of the diskette). 

3) Check to see that the diskette(s) is inserted correctly, and that the drive 
door(s) is closed. 

4) If you have more than one disk drive, be sure the ZORK diskette is in drive 
and you know the correct number of the drive holding the storage diskette 
(1,2, or 3). Be sure you typed the correct number. 



5) If you have turned off the TRS-80, or have pressed the I RESET | button, 
follow the instructions for "Loading ZORK from the Diskette." 

6) Try again, the problem may be only momentary. 

7) As a last resort, try another storage diskette. 



Appendix B: Command Summary 





Appendix B: 


Command Summary 






The following commands may be entered when the right arrow prompt ( > ) 
appears on the screen: 






AGAIN 


ZORK will respond as if you had repeated your previous 
sentence. 






BRIEF 


This commands ZORK to fully describe only newly 
encountered rooms and objects. Rooms already visited and 
objects already seen will be described by printing the room 
name and the object names only. 






DIAGNOSE 


ZORK gives you a medical report of your physical condition. 
This is particularly useful if you have just survived a 
dangerous battle. 






INVENTORY 


ZORK lists your possessions. If you've noticed the thief 
lurking about, you might want to check to see if your 
belongings are still there. You may abbreviate 
INVENTORY by typing I. 






LOOK 


ZORK describes your surroundings in detail. You may 
abbreviate LOOK by typing L. 






QUIT 


This gives you the option to quit playing. If you want to 
save your position, first read the instructions under "Saving 
a Game Position". You may abbreviate QUIT by typing Q. 






RESTART 


This ends the game and starts a new game over from the 
beginning. 






RESTORE 


This lets you pick up where you left off in a game you saved 
previously. See the section on "Restoring a Game Position." 






SAVE 


This lets you save your position in a game so you can come 
back and finish it later. See the section on "Saving a Game 
Position." 






SCORE 


ZORK shows your current score with the number of moves 
you have made, and your rank. Your rank is your rating as a 
professional ZORK player and is based on the number of 
points you have and the number of moves you've made. 






SCRIPT 


This command assumes you have a printer. It commands the 
printer to begin printing a transcript of your game session. 




22 









Appendix B: Command Summary 



SUPERBRIEF 

UNSCRIPT 
VERBOSE 

VERSION 

WAIT 



This command tells ZORK to show you only the name of the 
room you have entered, and no other information. It is 
briefer than BRIEF. 

Unscript stops your printer from printing. 

This command tells ZORK to show you a long description of 
the room and the objects in it whenever you enter a room. 

ZORK responds by showing you the version and serial 
number of your copy of the game. 

This causes time in the game to pass. Normally, between 
moves, no time is passing as far as ZORK is concerned. You 
could leave your TRS-80, take a nap, and return to the game 
to find that nothing has changed. WAIT is used when you 
want to find out what will happen in the game if you do 
nothing while time passes. For example, if you encounter an 
alien being, you could WAIT and see what it will do. 



Sentence Syntax 

• A ZORK sentence must contain at least a verb or a command (e.g., AGAIN). 

• Separate multiple objects of a verb by the word "and" or a comma (,). 

• Several sentences typed to ZORK at one time must be separated by periods 
or by the word "then". A period is not needed at the end of a line of input. 

• Only two kinds of questions may be asked: "What" and "Where". 

• Compass directions may be abbreviated to N, E, S, W, NE, NW, SW, SE; Up 
and Down may be abbreviated to U and D respectively. 

• The letter L may be used to abbreviate the LOOK command. 

• The letter I may be used to abbreviate the INVENTORY command. 

• The letter Q may be used to abbreviate the QUIT command. 



J 23 



Appendix C: Tips for Multi-Drive Users 



24 



Appendix C: Tips for Multi-Drive Users 

Multi-drive systems make some ZORK procedures quite easy, notably saving 
and restoring game positions. 

Make sure the ZORK program diskette is write-protected. 

Model I 

Saving a Game Position 

You must have a TRSDOS initialized diskette to save a game position. See 
Appendix D, "How to FORMAT a Storage Diskette." To save a game position 
on a multi-drive TRS-80 Model I, follow these steps: 

1) After the right arrow (>) prompt, type: 

rslfAlfv|[El 



then press the | ENTER | key. 

2) ZORK will respond: 

LOAD SAVE DISK, THEN TYPE DRIVE NUMBER (0-3, <ENTER> = 0) 

3) Insert the initialized storage diskette in drive 1 and close the drive door. You 
cannot save games on the ZORK Model I program diskette. Type Q] . 

4) ZORK will respond: 

ENTER SAVE NUMBER (0-4, <ENTER> =0) 

5) If you want ZORK to assign the default save number (ft) to your saved game, 
press | ENTER | . If you want to give the game a number of your own, type 
the number (correcting mistakes with the <- key). 

6) If all is well, ZORK will respond: 
OK 

If ZORK responds: 

FAILED 

turn to Appendix A, "Troubleshooting." 



Appendix C: Tips for Multi-Drive Users 



You should see the right arrow prompt ( > ); you can now continue playing. Type 
|T| [o] [o] \k\ f or a description of where you are. You may now use the 
storage diskette and the RESTORE procedure to return to this point at another 
time. 

Restoring a Game Position 

To pick up a game where you left off, you use the RESTORE command. The 
following instructions are for multi-drive Model I users. If you have a single- 
drive system, turn to "Restoring a Game Position" in the main part of this 
manual. 

From anywhere in the game, type after the right arrow ( > ) prompt: 
iiiSili then press 1 ENTER | . 

1) ZORK will respond: 

LOAD SAVE DISK, THEN TYPE DRIVE NUMBER (0-3, 0= < ENTER> ) 

2) Put the storage diskette in drive 1 and close the drive door. Type Q] . 

3) ZORK will respond: 

ENTER SAVE NUMBER (0-4, <ENTER> =ft) 

4) If the game you wish to resume was saved with the default save number (i.e., 
you pres sed 1 ENTER | after the SAVE prompt was displayed), just press 

I ENTER | . If you gave the game a save number from 1-4, type that number. 

5) If ZORK successfully loaded the game, it will display OK. If you see FAILED 
displayed, ZORK was unable to load the game. Check the game number you 
typed in. If you entered everything correctly, turn to Appendix A, 
"Troubleshooting." 

6) You're ready to resume the game where you left off. Type \l\ \o} [o] [k] to 
see where you are. Good luck! 

If you're a conservative player, you can keep your storage diskette in drive 1 and 
save your game position frequently. If you use the same filename, for example, 
the default filename, ZORK will overwrite the old file each time you save your 
game position. Then, if you get lost or killed, you can pick the game up at the 
point where you last saved it. 



25 



Appendix C: Tips for Multi-Drive Users 



26 



Model III 

Saving a Game Position 

You must have a TRSDOS initialized diskette to save a game position. See 
Appendix E, "How to BACKUP a TRSDOS Diskette." To save a game position 
on a multi-drive TRS-80 Model III, follow these steps: 

1) After the right arrow (>) prompt, type: 
fsl [Al fvl fEl 



then press the (ENTER ] key. 

2. ZORK will respond: 

Load SAVE disk then enter file name, <ENTER> for default 

3. Insert the storage diskette in drive 1 and close the drive door. You cannot 
save games on the ZORK Model III program diskette. 

4. If you want ZORK to assign the default filename to your saved game, press 
I ENTER [ . If you want to give the game a name of your own, type the name 
(correcting mistakes with the <- key) and then press | ENTER | . Filenames can 
be up to eight characters long and may have up to a three-character 
extension. See your Model III Disk System Owner's Manual for more 
information. You may also type [7] [n] after a filename, where "n" is 1-3. 
This forces ZORK to save the game onto the diskette in drive "n". 

5. ZORK will respond: 

Load DATA disk, type ENTER to continue > 



Press I ENTER [ . If all is well, ZORK will respond: 

Ok 

If ZORK responds: 

Failed 

turn to Appendix A, "Troubleshooting." 

You should see the right arrow prompt (>); you can now continue playing. 
Type |T] \o\ [o] \k\ for a description of where you are. You may now use the 
storage diskette and the RESTORE procedure to return to this point at 
another time. 



Appendix C: Tips for Multi-Drive Users 



Restoring a Game Position 

To pick up a game where you left off, you use the RESTORE command. The 
following instructions are for multi-drive Model III users. If you have a single- 
drive system, turn to "Restoring a Game Position" in the main part of this 
manual. 

From anywhere in the game, type after the right arrow ( > ) prompt: 
HiEiSl then press | ENTER | . 

1) ZORK will respond: 

Load SAVE disk then enter file name, < ENTER> for default 

2) Put the storage disk in drive 1, and close the drive door. 

3) If the game you wish to resume was saved with the default file name (i.e., 
you pressed | ENTER | after the SAVE prompt was displayed), just press 

I ENTER I . 



4) If you gave the game a name, type the name and press | ENTER | . 

5) ZORK will respond with this message: 

Load DATA disk, type <ENTER> to continue 



6) Press I ENTER | . 

7) If ZORK successfully loaded the game, it will display Ok. If you see Failed 
displayed, ZORK was unable to load the game. Check the game name you 
typed in. If all is correct, turn to Appendix A, "Troubleshooting." 

8) You're ready to resume the game where you left off. Type |~P [ol fol [k] to 
see where you are. Good luck! 

If you're a conservative player, you can keep your game save diskette in any 
drive except drive ^ and SAVE your game position frequently. If you use the 
same filename, for example, the default filename, ZORK will overwrite the old 
file each time you save your game position. Then, if you get lost or killed, you 
can pick the game up at the point where you last saved it. 



Appendix D: How to FORMAT a Storage Diskette 



28 



Appendix D: How to FORMAT a Storage Diskette 

To save games being played on a TRS-80 Model I computer, you must first have 
a formatted storage diskette. To format a diskette, use the FORMAT command. 

Follow these steps when formatting a storage diskette: 

1) Put your Model I TRSDOS diskette in drive fi and turn on your computer. 

2) When you see the TRSDOS Ready prompt, type HO [o] g] H [a] \j} . 



3) Press | ENTER | . The formatting utility will begin executing. You will see this 
prompt: WHICH D RIVE IS T O BE USED?. If you have a single-drive system, 
type HO and press | ENTER | . If you have a multi-drive system, type the 
number of any of your drives other than drive and press | ENTER | . 

4) Next you will see the prompt DISKETTE NAME?; type QJO |o] H E Q] 
or something else appropriate and press | ENTER | . 

5) Respond to the CREATION DATE prompt by typing today's date. Then press 
I ENTER I • 



6) Respond to the MASTER PASSWORD prompt by typing [Y] g] [s| [g ® 
or some other short word you'll remember and press | ENTER | . 

7) The next prompt will read DO YOU WANT TO LOCK OUT ANY TRACKS?. 
Type [N] for NO. 

8) If you have a multi-drive system, make sure your storage diskette is in the 
drive indicated in step 3 above. Press | ENTER | . If you have a single-drive 
system, the utility will prompt you when it wants you to swap diskettes. 

9) If the diskette you have chosen as a storage diskette already has data on it, 
you will get a message that sa ys DISKE TTE CONTAINS DATA, FORMAT 
OR NOT?. Type [yJ and press | ENTER | . 

10) The screen will eventually show: 
FORMATTING COMPLETE 
PRESS ENTER TO CONTINUE 

The diskette is now ready to use as a ZORK storage diskette. 



Appendix E: How to BACKUP a TRSDOS Diskette 



Appendix E: How to BACKUP a TRSDOS Diskette 

Your Model III requires that diskettes used to store data be formatted or 
initialized. Before you save a ZORK game position you must use the BACKUP 
command to format a storage diskette. 

To use BACKUP, follow these steps: 

1) Put your Model III TRSDOS diskette in drive $ and turn on your computer. 
After the TRSDOS Ready prompt appears, type [g @ \c\ E M \E 

and press 1 ENTER [ . 

2) Put a blank diskette or a diskette that contains unneeded data in another 
drive. If you have a single-drive system, keep the diskette handy. 

3) The BACKUP utility will begin to execute. You should see a prompt that 
reads: SOURCE Drive Number?. Specify the drive that contains the original 
TRSDOS diskette by typing Qf] , then press | ENTER | . 

4) Next TRSDOS will ask: DESTINATION Drive Number?. Specify the drive 
that will be used to make the duplicate TRSDOS diskette. If you have a 
multi-drive system, type the number of the drive indicated in step 2 above 
and press | ENTER | . If you have a single-drive system, type (j§0 and press 

I ENTER I . 



5) TRSDOS will ask SOURCE DISK MASTER PASSWORD?. Type 

B H [g Qs] M HO [1 H 

and press I ENTER | (PASSWORD is the password of the Model 

III TRSDOS diskette). The screen will display the flashing message: INSERT 

DESTINATION DISKETTE <ENTER>. 

6) The duplication process will begin. BACKUP will format the storage diskette 
before duplication begins. If the backup diskette already has data on it, 
BACKUP will ask you if you want to overwrite it. Type [y] and press 

I ENTER [ . Backup will ask: Do you wish to re-format the diskette? Type [y] 
and press | ENTER | . If you have a single-drve system, BACKUP will tell you 
when to swap diskettes. 



29 



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WITHOUT WARRANTY. 



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NOTE: Good data processing procedure dictates that the user test the program, run and test sample 
sets of data, and run the system in parallel with the system previously in use for a period of 
time adequate to insure that results of operation of the computer or program are satisfactory . 



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